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Ahmadinejad, Rouhani and Iran now

Ahmadinejad, Rouhani and Iran now  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0007
Format: 
chapter
How did Ahmadinejad become president in 2005? Among the presidents Iran has had since the revolution, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was the joker in the pack. He was not part of the charmed ... More
Ancient and Islamic Iran

Ancient and Islamic Iran  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0002
Format: 
chapter
What do we know about the Indo-European peoples and the origins of Iran? What we know begins with the fact that the Persian language (known to Iranians in their own tongue as ... More
Criminal Law and Justice

Criminal Law and Justice  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0010
Format: 
chapter
Criticisms of Islam and Islamic law often focus on reports and media coverage of harsh hudud punishments in Muslim countries. This chapter compares the rationales and goals of Islamic ... More
The Five Pillars of Islam and Community Life

The Five Pillars of Islam and Community Life  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0005
Format: 
chapter
An important prophetic tradition maintains that “Islam was built upon five ‘foundations.’ ” The Five Pillars (the profession of faith [shahadah], daily prayers [salat], almsgiving [zakat], ... More
Freedom and Human Rights

Freedom and Human Rights  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0008
Format: 
chapter
Muslim countries and societies face major human rights challenges today, especially for those living under patriarchal societies and authoritarian rule. These include equal rights for ... More
Government, Law, and Order

Government, Law, and Order  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0007
Format: 
chapter
Throughout history, while the example of Muhammad as head of state and Shariah principles have been reference points, diverse and competing models of government and law have existed. ... More
Introduction

Introduction  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0001
Format: 
chapter
For many years, Iran has been closed off from much of the rest of the outside world, but now the country is opening up. The conclusion of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in ... More
Introduction

Introduction  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0001
Format: 
chapter
Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know provides informed answers to many questions and charges that surround the debate over Shariah and Islamic Law. As its title indicates, we ... More
The Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988), Rafsanjani, Khatami, Reconstruction, and Reform

The Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988), Rafsanjani, Khatami, Reconstruction, and Reform  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0006
Format: 
chapter
What or who was primarily responsible for the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war? Various causes have been presented to explain the origin of the Iran-Iraq war, including deep-seated ... More
Islamic Finance in A Global World

Islamic Finance in A Global World  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0011
Format: 
chapter
The Shariah principle of moderation occupies a middle position between liberal capitalism and socialism. Islam is a practical religion. Its links to trade and commerce originated with ... More
The Pahlavis

The Pahlavis  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0004
Format: 
chapter
How did the British take control of Iranian oil in the first years of the twentieth century? Part of the story of western encroachment and the increasing weakness of the Qajar ... More
The Revolution of 1979

The Revolution of 1979  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0005
Format: 
chapter
Who was Ruhollah Khomeini and how did he come to wield such influence over Iranians? Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini was born in September 1902 in Khomein, a small town between Tehran and ... More
The Safavids and the Impact of the West (1500–1921)

The Safavids and the Impact of the West (1500–1921)  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0003
Format: 
chapter
When and why did Iran turn Shi‘a? At the beginning of the sixteenth century a new empire was established on the Iranian plateau—the empire of the Safavids. The Safavid dynasty ... More
Science, Bioethics, and Human Life

Science, Bioethics, and Human Life  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0012
Format: 
chapter
In the twenty-first century, it is crucial to understand the relationship between Shariah and scientific questions about life, including medical, bioethical, and environmental decisions. ... More
ShariahThe Big Picture

Shariah: The Big Picture  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0003
Format: 
chapter
Shariah is a word that evokes condemnation from politicians, pundits, and others, yet it carries deep spiritual and social meaning for Muslims around the world. Understanding the origin and ... More
Shariah and Islamic LawMyths and Realities

Shariah and Islamic Law: Myths and Realities  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0002
Format: 
chapter
For many in the West today, “Shariah” is a word that evokes fear—fear of a medieval legal system that issues draconian punishments, fear of relegation of women and religious minorities to ... More
Shariah Courts

Shariah Courts  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0004
Format: 
chapter
Rooted in the local community, Shariah courts played a pivotal role in Muslim societies through the ages. In this chapter, we look at the responsibilities of qadis (judges) and muftis ... More
War, Peace, and the Common Good

War, Peace, and the Common Good  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0009
Format: 
chapter
In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, visions of Islamic societies and claims to Islamic authenticity and legitimacy have expanded in many directions. At times, these calls for ... More
Women, Gender, and the Family

Women, Gender, and the Family  

John L. Esposito and Natana J. Delong-Bas

in Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 July 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199325054.003.0006
Format: 
chapter
Muslim family law governs the rights and responsibilities of men and women in marriage, divorce, and inheritance. The Quran introduced important rights for women in marriage, divorce, and ... More

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