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Afghanistan Seen by Others

Afghanistan Seen by Others  

Barnett R. Rubin

in Afghanistan: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
08 October 2020
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190496630.003.0001
Format: 
chapter
Through much of the twentieth century Afghanistan seemed to be a distant concern in the United States. “Afghanistanism” used to be journalistic shorthand for stories about distant places, ... More
Ahmadinejad, Rouhani and Iran now

Ahmadinejad, Rouhani and Iran now  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0007
Format: 
chapter
How did Ahmadinejad become president in 2005? Among the presidents Iran has had since the revolution, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was the joker in the pack. He was not part of the charmed ... More
Albanians

Albanians  

Tim Judah

in Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
25 September 2008
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780195376739.003.0001
Format: 
chapter
Although the focus of this book is Kosovo, it is also about the people of the Western Balkans, especially the Albanians and the Serbs, who do not fit neatly into the boundaries of the ... More
Ancient and Islamic Iran

Ancient and Islamic Iran  

Michael Axworthy

in Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 January 2017
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190232955.003.0002
Format: 
chapter
What do we know about the Indo-European peoples and the origins of Iran? What we know begins with the fact that the Persian language (known to Iranians in their own tongue as ... More
The Arab Uprisings and their Fallout

The Arab Uprisings and their Fallout  

James L. Gelvin

in The New Middle East: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
11 January 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190653996.003.0002
Format: 
chapter
How did the Arab uprisings begin? On December 17, 2010, a Tunisian street vendor, Muhammad Bouazizi, set himself on fire in front of the local government building in Sidi Bouzid, ... More
The Arab-Israeli Wars

The Arab-Israeli Wars  

Dov Waxman

in The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
08 August 2019
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190625320.003.0003
Format: 
chapter
How many Arab-Israeli wars have there been, and how many people have been killed? It is not as easy as you might think to count the number of Arab-Israeli wars or tally the number ... More
Arctic Homelands

Arctic Homelands  

Klaus Dodds and Mark Nuttall

in The Arctic: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
08 August 2019
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190649814.003.0003
Format: 
chapter
The Arctic, if defined by land and sea (and ice) lying north of the Arctic Circle, is home to 4 million people. The majority of residents are found in the Russian North, and overwhelmingly ... More
The Bashir-Turabi Coup of 1989, the Rise and Fall of Hassan Al-Turabi, and U.S. Policy Toward Sudan

The Bashir-Turabi Coup of 1989, the Rise and Fall of Hassan Al-Turabi, and U.S. Policy Toward Sudan  

Andrew S. Natsios

in Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
07 June 2012
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199764204.003.0006
Format: 
chapter
How did Omar al-Bashir and Hassan al-Turabi take power? On June 30, 1989, just as Sadiq was about to leave for Addis Ababa, a group of midranking army officers led by Brigadier ... More
The Basic Terms

The Basic Terms  

Michael J. Gerhardt

in Impeachment: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
30 August 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190903664.003.0003
Format: 
chapter
What does the term “impeachment” mean? At least as a concept, if not in practice, impeachment has been around for a long time. The word itself derives from a Latin root used to ... More
The Basics

The Basics  

Dov Waxman

in The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
08 August 2019
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190625320.003.0001
Format: 
chapter
Who is the conflict between? To understand any conflict, the first and most basic task is to accurately identify the parties involved. When it comes to the Israeli-Palestinian ... More
Before the Deluge: The Middle East, 1945–2011

Before the Deluge: The Middle East, 1945–2011  

James L. Gelvin

in The New Middle East: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
11 January 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190653996.003.0001
Format: 
chapter
What is the Middle East? The Middle East “Middle East” is one of several terms that refer to the territory of southwest Asia and North Africa. Other terms for the same ... More
The BeginningTunisia and Egypt

The Beginning: Tunisia and Egypt  

James L. Gelvin

in The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know® (2 ed.)

Published in Print: 
23 July 2015
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190222741.003.0002
Format: 
chapter
What characteristics do Tunisia and Egypt hold in common? At first glance, it would seem that no two countries in the Arab world differ from each other more than Tunisia and Egypt. ... More
The Beginning of the Conflict

The Beginning of the Conflict  

Dov Waxman

in The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
08 August 2019
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190625320.003.0002
Format: 
chapter
When did the conflict begin? By far the most enduring popular myth about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is that it is an age-old conflict. All too often, one hears the claim that ... More
Beliefs

Beliefs  

Terryl Givens

in Mormonism: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
26 November 2020
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190885083.003.0006
Format: 
chapter
What are the most distinctive beliefs of Latter-day Saints? One unique teaching of the Latter-day Saints is belief in God as a divine being who exists in eternal relationship with ... More
A Better Edition of Itself?

A Better Edition of Itself?  

Timothy J. Colton

in Russia: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
29 September 2016
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199917808.003.0006
Format: 
chapter
Why did Russia annex Crimea? The short- and long-term challenges facing Russia are legion. In the short haul, one of the most daunting is to sort through repercussions of events to ... More
The Birth of Modern Sudan

The Birth of Modern Sudan  

Andrew S. Natsios

in Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
07 June 2012
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199764204.003.0002
Format: 
chapter
How has Sudan’s early history affected its current problems? To answer this question, we need to follow Sudan’s history, principally that of the last two centuries. European ... More
Brazilian Culture and Society

Brazilian Culture and Society  

Riordan Roett

in Brazil: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
01 September 2016
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190224523.003.0010
Format: 
chapter
Brazil has a vibrant national culture. It ranges from the passionate commitment of the average Brazilian to “their” soccer team to the bossa nova, an imaginative film industry, and ... More
The British Raj and the Road to Independence

The British Raj and the Road to Independence  

Mira Kamdar

in India in the 21st Century: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
28 June 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199973606.003.0004
Format: 
chapter
What was the East India Company? On December 31, 1600, Queen Elizabeth I granted a royal charter giving a group of English adventurers a fifteen-year monopoly over England’s trade ... More
Building

Building  

Stathis N. Kalyvas

in Modern Greece: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
28 May 2015
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780199948772.003.0003
Format: 
chapter
How was the new state built? Becoming independent was the easy part. The leaders of the new state faced a daunting task. They sought to create a modern European state in a rather ... More
Building a New RegimeNasser, Sadat, and Mubarak

Building a New Regime: Nasser, Sadat, and Mubarak  

Bruce K. Rutherford and Jeannie L. Sowers

in Modern Egypt: What Everyone Needs to Know®

Published in Print: 
13 December 2018
Published Online: 
12 November 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/wentk/9780190641146.003.0003
Format: 
chapter
What Caused the Military Coup in 1952? What Were Its Goals? The political order created after Egypt’s independence in 1922 was a disappointment to many Egyptians. The struggle for ... More

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